Naval Power and Force Projection

Summer 2017

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When we assess an installation's energy security, we consider that mission-essential facilities (e.g. shipyards and airfields) may require higher levels of reliability and resiliency than the commercial grid can provide. To improve installation energy security we are embracing new approaches including distributed energy generation, demand response technologies, and power storage infrastructure. Our office has pursued aggressive energy security initiatives and worked with Navy and Marine Corps energy leaders to embrace innovative ways to reduce consumption and improve energy efficiency. We have leveraged existing authorities to incorporate renewable energy, energy storage technologies and cyber security improvements to improve installation resilience. Both Navy and Marine Corps have used Energy Saving Performance Contracts (ESPCs), Utility Energy Savings Contracts (UESCs), and other third party-financing arrangements to make significant progress despite constrained appropriated funded budgets. Commercial grid vulnerability to a cyber-attack is a reality that threatens our ability to execute critical missions. At least one successful cyber-attack has already been waged against a commercial power grid. In December 2015, operators at the Prykarpattyaoblenergo control center in the Ukraine watched helplessly as an outside operator hijacked their computers and forced an electrical substation offline. Within hours two more power control centers were also brought down. In total, approximately 230,000 customers in Ukraine were deprived of power in the heart of winter. If a similar attack was executed against a California power station, operations at Navy and Marine Corps installations could be disrupted. An example how DON installations are responding to threats, Marine Corps Air Station Miramar leadership is constructing an internal microgrid capable of powering critical systems. Some threats are very complex, such as the cyber security challenge. Others can be addressed at the local level where, for example, single points of failure can be mitigated by negotiating with local utilities to install a second transformer where such a vulnerability is identified. It is the responsibility of the services' leadership to work with each base commander to analyze weaknesses and act to correct them, to ensure continuity of operations if the commercial grid fails. Navy and Marine Corps leaders are not taking energy for granted; they are no longer assuming energy will always be there. There are 95 U.S. naval installations around the globe, all of which draw power from commercial grids that are vulnerable to physical or cyber- attack. Our national security dictates a more proactive approach to energy security by providing redundancy beyond external supplies. Examples of recent Navy and Marine Corps energy security initiatives include: • Marine Corps Air Station Yuma, AZ: The DON signed an innovative agreement in which the Marine Corps leased land to Arizona Power. As part of that agreement, the utility is developing a 25 megawatts (MW) natural gas "Peaker Plant" on the land, and microgrid network on the base. The Peaker Plant provides Arizona Power customers reliable power enclaved within the installation fenceline for added security. In the event of a commercial grid disruption, the system supplies 100 percent of the backup power required to maintain operations at MCAS Yuma. As a result, the Marine Corps will realize significant cost savings by eliminating the need for dozens of backup diesel generators. • Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, NH: At Portsmouth the Navy implemented a 10 MW Combined Heat and Power plant (with 4 MW of emergency back-up generation), with microgrid controls and a 580kWh energy storage system to improve resiliency. The control system intelligently adds or sheds electrical loads to balance available distributed generation on-site. In the event of a grid outage, this will enable the installation to prioritize powering those systems that support mission critical operations. • Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach: DON has partnered with a third-party developer to build a 50-100 MW grid-scale battery system and, as part of the in-kind contribution by the developer, the DON will receive a fully interconnected 500 kW photovoltaic system and a one MW (6 MWh) battery for exclusive Navy use. The system will provide power to critical loads during commercial grid outages. In addition to technical solutions, the Navy and the Marine Corps continue to improve the Department's energy culture through behavior change campaigns. In 2015, the Marine Corps issued its Energy Ethos, a shared vision that emphasized the operational benefits from more efficiently using energy resources. Our office recently released a guidance document establishing an Installation Energy Security Framework, which defines energy security and the methods by which an installation may increases its resiliency, reliability, and efficiency. We value the relationships we have developed with industry partners over the last several years, and we could not have made the significant progress on energy security without them. The contractors executing our renewable energy projects, ESPCs and UESCs brought industry best practices to bear in meeting installation energy requirements, while driving savings and upgrading key elements of our facilities. The DON has and will continue to partner with commercial utilities to diversify energy resources, improve utility reliability, and improve energy security when and where it makes sense. In summary, the DON is working to take prudent action to increase the energy security of our naval installations. Physical attacks like the one at the Metcalf substation, cyber-attacks to commercial grid infrastructure, natural disasters like Superstorm Sandy which blacked out parts of the Northeast for days, or even the simple wear and tear of an aging electrical grid, are all threats we must be prepared to counter. The Navy and Marine Corps must remain ready to deploy combat power around the clock, around the globe. Our national security demands we be ready to answer the call. To accomplish that mission, the Navy and Marine Corps must have access to secure, readily accessible energy resources. It is incumbent on the DON to continue to build our energy security by improving the reliability, resiliency, and efficiency of our installations. We will continue to invest in projects that are good for the warfighter, enable readiness, and have a strong business case. The Navy and Marine Corps team is up to the task. COMPLIMENTARY SUBSCRIPTION | scan the code to sign up now! CONTINUITY OF OPERATIONS NAVAL INSTALLATION ENERGY 22 | NP&FP and DoD P&E | Summer 2017

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